Imagination VS Knowlegde

Imagination is more important than knowledge.
Knowledge is limited. imagination encircles the world
(Albert Enstien )

Wednesday, January 12, 2011

Present Perfect

The Present Perfect is used to express actions that happened at an indefinite time or that began in the past and continue in the present. This tense is also used when an activity has an effect on the present moment.


  1. Actions which happened at an indefinite (unknown) time before now
  2. Actions in the past which have an effect on the present moment
  3. Actions which began in the past and continue in the present


USE 1: Indefinite (unknown) time before now

Use the Present Perfect to talk about actions that happened at some point in the past. It does not matter when exactly they happened.


  • have already had a breakfast.
  • He has been to England.
You should not use this tense with time expressions like "yesterday", "a week ago", "last year", etc.


  • I have seen it yesterday.
  • We have gone to Paris last year
USE 2: Effect on the present moment


We also use this tense to when an activity has an effect on the present moment.


  • He has finished his work. (so he can now rest)
  • have already eaten the dinner. (so I'm not hungry)
  • He has had a car accident. (that's why he is in the hospital)
USE 3: Continuation in the present


We often use the Present Perfect when we want to emphasize that an event continues in the present.


  • Mary has worked as a teacher for over 25 years.
  • Patrick has achieved a lot in his life.

    Prepared by:
    Miss Ai_0952112

Present Simple Tense

The Present Simple is the most basic and common tense in the English language. It is also an interesting tense because it can express both the present and the future.


  1. Facts and generalization
  2. Habits and routines
  3. Permanent situations
  4. State verbs (e.g. be, have, think, know)
  5. Fixed / official arrangement that we can't change
  6. Narrations (e.g. telling a story or a joke)


USE 1: Facts and Generalizations


The first and most important use of the Present Simple is to talk about things we believe are (or are not) true. It's also used to generalize about somebody or something. 


  • It is a big house.
  • He talks a lot.
  • Berlin is the capital city of Germany.
  • Buenos Aires is a large city.
  • The Elephant doesn't fly.
  • Dogs don't smoke cigarettes.
  • A dog is not large than an elephant
  • London is the capital city of France. (Remember: the sentence doesn't have to be true)


Present Continuous Tense

Present Continuous

The Present Continuous is mainly used to express the idea that something is happening at the moment of speaking. Another use of the tense is to talk about what we are planning to do. There are also other uses, listed below.


  1. Present actions
  2. Temporary actions
  3. Longer actions in progress
  4. Future (personal) arrangements and plans
  5. Irritation over something or somebody in the present


USE 1: Present Actions


Use the Present Continuous tense to talk about actions happening at the moment of speaking. 


  • He is eating a dinner.
  • Mary is talking with her friend.
  • They are swimming.


USE 2: Temporary Actions


This tense is also used for activities continuing for only a limited period of time. 


  • I'm riding a bike to get to work because my car is broken. (It will soon be repaired)
  • They are not talking with each other after the last argument. (They will soon make up)

USE 3: Longer Actions in Progress


We also use the Present Continuous when we are in a middle of doing something time-consuming (i.e. something that takes time to complete). An example of such an activity is writing a book, saving money or studying for an exam. 


  • They are working hard to earn money.
  • am training to become a professional footballer.
  • Mike is studying hard to become a doctor.
  • Elizabeth is currently writing a children's book titled I am the World.

Prepositions Of Time- At, In,On

We use:

  • at for a PRECISE TIME

  • on for DAYS and DATES

at 3 o'clockin Mayon Sunday
at 10.30amin summeron Tuesdays
at noonin the summeron 6 March
at dinnertimein 1990on 25 Dec. 2010
at bedtimein the 1990son Christmas Day
at sunrisein the next centuryon Independence Day
at sunsetin the Ice Ageon my birthday
at the momentin the past/futureon New Year's Eve
Look at these examples:

  • I have a meeting at 9am.
  • The shop closes at midnight.
  • Jane went home at lunchtime.
  • In England, it often snows in December.
  • Do you think we will go to Jupiter in the future?
  • There should be a lot of progress in the next century.
  • Do you work on Mondays?
  • Her birthday is on 20 November.
  • Where will you be on New Year's Day?


Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions:

at nightThe stars shine at night.
at the weekendI don't usually work at the weekend.
at Christmas/EasterI stay with my family at Christmas.
at the same timeWe finished the test at the same time.
at presentHe's not home at present. Try later.


Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions:

in the morningon Tuesday morning
in the morningson Saturday mornings
in the afternoon(s)on Sunday afternoons
in the evening(s)on Monday evening


When we say last, next, every, this we DO NOT use at, in, on.

  • I went to London last June. (not in last June)
  • He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday)
  • I go home every Easter. (not at every Easter)
  • We'll call you this evening. (not in this evening)


Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Prepositions of Place: at, in, on

In general, we use:

  • at for a POINT
  • in for an ENCLOSED SPACE
  • on for a SURFACE







at the corner 

in the garden 

on the wall 

at the bus stop 

in London 

on the ceiling

at the door 

in France 

on the door 

at the top of the page 

in a box 

on the cover 

at the end of the road 

in my pocket 

on the floor 

at the entrance 

in my wallet 

on the carpet 

at the crossroads 

in a building 

on the menu 

at the front desk 

in a car 

on a page

Look at these examples:

  • Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.
  • The shop is at the end of the street.
  • My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late.
  • When will you arrive at the office?
  • Do you work in an office?
  • I have a meeting in New York.
  • Do you live in Japan?
  • Jupiter is in the Solar System.
  • The author's name is on the cover of the book.
  • There are no prices on this menu.
  • You are standing on my foot.
  • There was a "no smoking" sign on the wall.
  • I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London.

Notice the use of the prepositions of place atin and on in these standard expressions:




at home 

in a car 

on a bus 

at work 

in a taxi 

on a train 

at school 

in a helicopter 

on a plane 

at university 

in a boat 

on a ship

at college 

in a lift (elevator) 

on a bicycle, on a motorbike 

at the top 

in the newspaper 

on a horse, on an elephant 

at the bottom 

in the sky 

on the radio, on television 

at the side 

in a row 

on the left, on the right 

at reception 

in Oxford Street 

on the way

WH Question 

We use question to ask certain types of questions (question word questions)

We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example Why, How).

Question WordFunctionExample
whatasking for information about somethingWhat is your name?
asking for repetition or confirmationWhat? I can't hear you.
You did what?
what...forasking for a reason, asking whyWhat did you do that for?
whenasking about timeWhen did he leave?
whereasking in or at what place or positionWhere do they live?
whichasking about choiceWhich colour do you want?
whoasking what or which person or people (subject)Who opened the door?
whomasking what or which person or people (object)Whom did you see?
whoseasking about ownershipWhose are these keys?
Whose turn is it?
whyasking for reason, asking what...forWhy do you say that?
why don'tmaking a suggestionWhy don't I help you?
howasking about mannerHow does this work?
asking about condition or qualityHow was your exam?
how + adj/advasking about extent or degreesee examples below
how fardistanceHow far is Pattaya from Bangkok?
how longlength (time or space)How long will it take?
how manyquantity (countable)How many cars are there?
how muchquantity (uncountable)How much money do you have?
how oldageHow old are you?
how come (informal)asking for reason, asking whyHow come I can't see her?


                                        Teacher:  What is this?
                                         Students: It is an apple teacher....!
                                         Teacher: Clever! well done children!

Prepared by:
Miss Adi_0952094

Indefinite pronouns

Indefinite Pronouns

  • Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. 
  • Some of them can be singular in one context and plural in another. 
  • The most common indefinite pronouns are listed below, with examples, as singular, plural or singular/plural.
  • Notice that a singular pronoun takes a singular verb AND that any personal pronoun should also agree (in number and gender). 

  • Look at these examples:

  • Each of the players has a doctor.
  • I met two girls. One has given me her phone number.
Similarly, plural pronouns need plural agreement:
  • Many have expressed their views.
anotheran additional or different person or thingThat ice-cream was good. Can I have another?
anybody/anyoneno matter what personCan anyone answer this question?
anythingno matter what thingThe doctor needs to know if you have eaten anything in the last two hours.
eachevery one of two or more people or things, seen separatelyEach has his own thoughts.
eitherone or the other of two people or thingsDo you want tea or coffee? / I don't mind. Either is good for me.
enoughas much or as many as neededEnough is enough.
everybody/everyoneall peopleWe can start the meeting because everybody has arrived.
everythingall thingsThey have no house or possessions. They losteverything in the earthquake.
lessa smaller amount"Less is more" (Mies van der Rohe)
littlea small amountLittle is know about his early life.
mucha large amountMuch has happend since we met.
neithernot one and not the other of two people or thingsI keep telling Jack and Jill butneither believes me.
nobody/no-oneno personI phoned many times butnobody answered.
nothingno single thing, not anythingIf you don't know the answer it's best to say nothing.
onean unidentified personCan one smoke here? | All the students arrived but now one is missing.
othera different person or thing from one already mentionedOne was tall and the other was short.
somebody/someonean unspecified or unknown personClearly somebody murdered him. It was not suicide.
somethingan unspecified or unknown thingListen! I just heard something! What could it be?
youan unidentified person (informal)And you can see why.
bothtwo people or things, seen togetherJohn likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good.
fewa small number of people or thingsFew have ever disobeyed him and lived.
fewera reduced number of people or thingsFewer are smoking these days.
manya large number of people or thingsMany have come already.
othersother people; not usI'm sure that others have tried before us.
severalmore than two but not manyThey all complained and severalleft the meeting.
theypeople in general (informal)They say that vegetables are good for you.
singular or plural
allthe whole quantity of something or of some things or peopleAll is forgiven.
All have arrived.
anyno matter how much or how manyIs any left?
Are any coming?
morea greater quantity of something; a greater number of people or thingsThere is more over there.
More are coming.
mostthe majority; nearly allMost is lost.
Most have refused.
nonenot any; no person or personsThey fixed the water so why isnone coming out of the tap?
I invited five friends but nonehave come.*
somean unspecified quantity of something; an unspecified number of people or thingsHere is some.
Some have arrived.
suchof the type already mentionedHe was a foreigner and he felt that he was treated as such.

Prepared by:
Miss Adi_0952094

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

Reflexive Pronouns

reflexive (adj.) [grammar]: reflecting back on the subject, like a mirror

  • We use a reflexive pronoun when we want to refer back to the subject of the sentence or clause. 

  • Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural).

There are eight reflexive pronouns:

reflexive pronoun

Further your understanding children:)

Look at these examples:

reflexive pronouns
the underlined words are NOT the same person/thingthe underlined words are the SAME person/thing
John saw me.I saw myself in the mirror.
Why does he blame you?Why do you blame yourself?
David sent him a copy.John sent himself a copy.
David sent her a copy.Mary sent herself a copy.
My dog hurt the cat.My dog hurt itself.
We blame you.We blame ourselves.
Can you help my children?Can you help yourselves?
They cannot look after the babies.They cannot look after themselves.

Prepared by:
Miss Adi_0952094